Secondary 2

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Curriculum Map

thinking like a scientist 2.0


Material World

essential question


What is science and how do we use it to learn about our world?

Big Idea

Science is a way of understanding the universe through observation and the collection of empirical evidence

Goals

Content Goals

  • Students will be able to confidently use various properties (mass, volume, temperature, acidity and alkalinity) to characterize matter.

Process Goals

  • Students will continue to develop the ability to design, carry out, and evaluate scientific investigations
  • Students will continue to develop critical thinking skills

Smarter Science skill(s)

–Observing, Questioning

PoL at a glance

  • Acidity/alkalinity
  • Characteristic properties

Reinvested topics

From elementary PoL;

  • Mass
  • Volume
  • Temperature & heat
  • States of Matter
  • Experimental Method
  • Graphical Analysis
  • Measurement strategies and instrumentation

TECH OBJECT


Burette



Suggested approach/ Flow through the module

HOOK: Start by exposing the students to a counterintuitive/discrepant event to demonstrate the importance of observation and measurement e.g. using upturned glass funnel/ping pong ball demo of Bernoulli’s principle (why does the ball go up?)

AfL probe; demo with breakers of colourless liquids with different pH – ‘Are these substances the same? How could we tell? etc. (use this activity to reinvest and refresh concepts about characteristic properties)

  • Introduce concepts of characteristic properties and acidity and alkalinity
  • Inquiry investigation based on pH (Questioning) (possibly stomach acid remedy)
  • Practical session in which known characteristic properties are used to identify unknown substance (possibly Rock/Mineral identification)
  • Steps to Inquiry (reinvesting sec 1 concepts)
  • Use a “Black box” activity to develop the idea of making inferences and modelling

Learning activities General:

  • Counterintuitive/discrepant event demo e.g. balloon video and/or oscillator reaction
  • Black box activity; rope and tube puzzle
  • Steps to Inquiry – students manipulate variables to see if quantity of Tums required to neutralize acid is affected
  • Practical task: pH investigation of household products could be set up as ‘test stations’ in circus activity

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Curriculum Map

thinking like an engineer 2.0


Tech World

essential question


How do engineers incorporate forces and motion into technological solutions?

Big Idea

Engineers can use ideas about forces and motion when designing technological solutions.

Goals

Content Goals

  • Students will be able to describe the role of links and guiding controls in a system
  • Students will be able to identify guiding controls and links in a technological object
  • Students will be able to identify and know the difference between, motion transmission and motion transformation

Process Goals

  • Students will develop a curiosity about technology and will be able to analyze a technical object/system by asking questions about its purpose, how it is made and how it works.
  • Students will use the technological design process to find a solution to a problems.


Smarter Science skill(s) - questioning, designing

PoL at a glance

  • links and guiding controls
  • motion transmission systems
  • motion transformation

Reinvested topics

  • transformation of energy
  • simple machines
  • diagrams
  • components in a system

Textbook alignment

Pg. 380-385, 390-391436, 438,

TECH OBJECT


VARIOUS


Suggested approach/ Flow through the module

HOOK: Honda The Cog https://goo.gl/aZZedh

AfL probe; Introduce students to a variety of objects that transmit or transform motion, use simple machines and ask why we have the object- what problem does this solve. This discussion will also reinvest some of the concepts from sec 1 (simple machines, force, motion, systems)

  • Teacher led discussion on how technology can be used to solve problems
  • Introduce idea that not all motion or directions of motion are desirable in a tech object hence the need to devise guiding controls and to choose appropriate type of link
  • Students examine a variety of objects and attempt to identify guides and links
  • Introduce and demo motion transmission and transformation in a number of objects
  • Challenge students with a “black-box” (motion transformation) demonstration, asking them to account for the mechanism that must be in place
  • Students are issued a “black-box” (motion transformation) design challenge

Learning activities General:

  • Present students with selection of objects and ask them why the object exists i.e. what problem is the technology solving
  • Use same objects to demonstrate guidance/guiding controls and to introduce notion of links
  • Use STIC/CDP activity ‘Animated cards’ to develop ideas of motion transmission/transformation http://goo.gl/KCyfCt
  • Students are issued a “black-box” (motion transformation) design challenge

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Curriculum Map

CHANGES


Material world

essential question


How can we use our knowledge about the properties of substances to separate them?

Big Idea

Differences in the properties of matter (chemical or physical) can be used to separate substances.

Goals

Content Goals

  • Students will understand what is meant by the term ‘mixture’ and will confidently be able to distinguish between hetero and homogeneous mixtures
  • Students will become familiar with the components of a solution (solute, solvent)
  • Students will become familiar with the main types of laboratory separation techniques

Process Goals

  • Students will be able to select the appropriate separation techniques to separate a complex mixture.
  • Students will be able to explain the basis of their choice of separation technique based on their knowledge in the different properties of matter, comparing the masses of the mixture with its components, etc.


Smarter Science skill(s) - Contrasting, explaining

PoL at a glance

  • Mixtures:
  • Solutions:
  • Separation of mixtures
  • Techniques: Separating mixtures:

Reinvested topics

  • Chemical changes
  • Physical Changes
  • Conservation of Matter
  • Atom (Dalton’s) Molecule
  • Acidity/Alkalinity (red or green blueberries?)

Textbook alignment

book B pg. 142 - 153

TECH OBJECT

  • ‘Brome Lake’ water filter “Life-Straw”, coin separator


Suggested approach/ Flow through the module

HOOK/AfL probe; Provide a startling real-world example that demonstrates separation of mixtures (astronauts separating urine,) and challenge the students with ‘how is this possible?’ - use this formatively to establish prior knowledge levels

  • Develop the concepts of homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures by asking students to observe ‘unknown’ samples and decide if each is mixture - students should explain how their observations lead to their decision. This module is an opportunity to review the classification of matter
  • Explore the idea of a solution and define associated vocab (solute, solvent, solution dissolving, saturation)
  • Introduce key concept that separating mixtures is a desirable and highly practical technique that can be used
  • Explain that separations are only possible if there is some different properties between the things you are trying to separate and that scientist need to find and identify these differences when designing a separation process
  • Provide students the opportunity to practice the different separation techniques.
  • Ask students to design and perform a procedure to separate a complex mixture
  • Ask students to analyze or design a technical object that separates a complex mixture.
  • Note: This module is an opportunity to reinvest previously learned concepts related to properties, organization and changes. For example, identifying components that have been separated using characteristic properties, recognizing chemical and physical changes during the separation of mixtures, comparing the mass of a mixture with the mass of its components, explaining some of the changes at the particle level.


Learning activities General:

  • Observation stations for mixtures; several stations around the lab each with an ‘unknowns’ which should include some genuine &
  • obvious mixtures, some non-obvious mixtures e.g. ethanol and water as well as some non-mixtures
  • Students practice separation techniques; sand/salt/water separation, distillation, chromatography, magnetic separation (iron from cereals)
  • MELS practical component prototype examination (separation of a complex mixture): ‘An Odd Mixture’ Students design and construct a filter for water treatment
  • Analysis of a coin separator – compare different models


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Curriculum Map

the dynamic earth


Earth & Space

essential question

How do ancient processes that formed the earth continue to shape the landscape today?

Big Idea

The physical structure of the Earth is in constant flux.

Goals

Content Goals

  • Students will understand the theory of tectonic plates.
  • Students will become familiar with the processes that cause earthquakes, volcanoes, and orogenesis.

Process Goals

  • Students will be able to predict the existence of volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain folding based on the boundaries of tectonic plates.

Smarter Science skill(s) – Inferring, modelling

PoL at a glance

  • Tectonic Plate
  • Orogenesis
  • Volcano
  • Earthquake
  • Relief

Reinvested topics

  • Convection currents
  • Internal Earth
  • Lithosphere
  • Relief
  • Changes
  • Constraints
  • Deformations

TECH OBJECT

  • Seismograph (enrichment: make one with a micro:bit or raspberry pi)

Suggested approach/ Flow through the module

HOOK: GALLIUM SPOON video

AfL probe; Provide students with extreme examples of how the Earth has changed in a short period of time (e.g. overnight formation of new islands) by showing before and after pictures and asking students to infer what happened. (Use formatively)

  • Use Google Earth Pro (now free!) or similar resource to show how the Earth’s crust is divided into plate and how those plates have moved over time.
  • Once it has been established that tectonic plates move, ask students “Why do tectonic plates move”? Students practice generating hypotheses and model ideas.
  • Explore how the movement of tectonic plates cause the formation and occurrence of mountains, earthquakes, and volcanoes using physical models and representations in the classroom as much as possible. Include references to effects of a force.
  • When discussing volcanoes topics relating to properties and organization can be reinvested (lava, emissions etc.)
  • Challenge students to interpret and make inferences about the occurrences of earthquakes, volcanoes using data sets and graphs (e.g. Tuva labs).
  • Continue to explore the idea of how the Earth is always changing to introduce the idea of relief. (e.g. compare the Laurentians with the Rockies)

Learning activities General:

  • Engineering design activity: Construct a tower that will withstand an earthquake.
  • Seismograph
  • Volcanoes clustered around the Pacific Rim (‘Ring of Fire’), found on Iceland, Hawaii

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Curriculum Map

to infinity and beyond


Earth & Space

essential question


How can we explain phenomena observed in the sky above us?

Big Idea

The position and motion of the Earth relative to the solar system and beyond can explain all of the astronomical phenomena that can be observed. The observation of astronomical phenomena is made possible by the characteristics of light.

Goals

Content Goals

  • Students will understand how periodical changes such as day/night, seasons, the phases of the moon and eclipses are related to planetary rotation and orbit
  • Students will appreciate the importance of gravitation as a major factor in influencing the motion of astronomical objects
  • Students will become familiar with i.e. comets, asteroids and meteorites
  • Students will understand that the Earth’s magnetic field is strongest at the poles and that when cosmic particles collide with this field, Aurora are produced

Process Goals

  • Students will be able to compare planets in terms of
  • Students will be able to explain astronomical observations in terms of the properties of light

Smarter Science skill(s) - modelling, comparing

PoL at a glance

  • Characteristics of the solar system
  • Cycles of Day and Night
  • Phases of the Moon
  • Eclipses
  • Seasons
  • Comets
  • Aurora Borealis
  • Meteoroid Impact

Reinvested topics

  • Properties of matter
  • Universal gravitation
  • Effects of a force
  • Types of Motion

TECH OBJECT

  • Sundial


Suggested approach/ Flow through the module

AfL probe; Challenge students - What IS a planet? What makes a planet a planet? use Socratic questioning to refine idea and build concept

HOOK; use BBC - Your Life on earth website to calculate the distance a given student has travelled since birth (around sun and through galaxy) http://goo.gl/nOi3VR

  • Challenge students - What IS a planet? What makes a planet a planet? use Socratic questioning to refine idea and build concept
  • Introduce students to the two main types of planetary motion - rotation and orbit and use this to reinforce idea of universal gravitation
  • Relate planetary rotation & orbit to the concept of day/night and seasons - compare Earth to other planets - what age would you be on different planets?
  • Continue to compare planets - terrestrial vs gaseous, temperature (why IS Venus hotter than Mercury etc.)
  • Explore how characteristic properties of light explain how light/ shadow produce the phases of the moon as well as eclipses
  • Use ideas about magnetism to introduce the idea that the earth’s magnetic field is strongest at the north and south poles and relate this to the appearance of aurora in these regions - can explain the vital role the magnetosphere plays in protecting life on Earth
  • Discuss the role that meteorite (and comet!) impacts have had on life on Earth and highlight Quebec examples of impact craters

Learning activities:

  • Scale model: http://thinkzone.wlonk.com/SS/SolarSystemModel.php
  • Use stretched membrane and mass to demonstrated the curvature of space time and orbits of (rolling planets) - see Eureka
  • Construct SCALE model of the universe with appropriate proportionalities (use online resource) and reinforce math concepts of proportions
  • Students observe moon at home and keep a lunar observation diary

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Curriculum Map

energy renewed

Tech World

Earth & Space

essential question

How can society make use of energy transformations?

Big Idea

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but it can be transformed. These transformations occur naturally but humans can use technology to harness these transformations to do useful work.

Goals

Content Goals

  • Students will understand that energy is what is required to do ‘work’
  • Students will become familiar with the many different forms in which energy can exist
  • Students will understand that energy can be transformed from one type to another (but not destroyed or ‘used up’_
  • Students will learn the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy resources
  • Students will gain an appreciation the impact of the use of energy on the environment

Process Goals

  • Students will be able to identify the energy transformations that occur in a technical object (observation)

Smarter Science skill(s) - Constructing, classifying

PoL at a glance

  • Energy transformations:
  • Energy resources:
  • Hydrosphere:
  • Atmosphere and wind

Reinvested topics

  • Photosynthesis
  • Simple machines
  • Motion Transmission
  • Motion Transformation

Simulations

forms of energy:

  • https://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/legacy/energy-forms-and-changes

TECH OBJECT

  • Electric Generator,
  • Solar panels,
  • wind turbines,
  • water turbines,


Suggested approach/ Flow through the module

HOOK: Solar FREAKIN' Roadways! Video https://goo.gl/Yc4wc6

AfL probe; what IS energy?

  • Introduce energy types/forms and distinguish the important difference between energy types and energy sources
  • ‘Energy Circus’; students identify the energy transformations occurring at a number of stations around class
  • Classify energy resources as being renewable or non-renewable
  • Explore the sun as an energy source and the subsequent energy transformations that occur (wind, tornados, convection currents)
  • Provide students with some practical experience by building models that transform renewable energy sources and then analyze the models that they built. See http://www.re-energy.ca/
  • Analyze a technical object as a system, including energy transformations. Reinvest concepts from mechanical engineering.
  • Design project/Design challenge involving energy transformation e.g. The Watermill

Learning activities

  • Building models that transform renewable energy sources See http://www.re-energy.ca/
  • Unequal heating lab (lights, trays of sand, water, soil).
  • Convection currents demo e.g. glass basin over ice water/hot water beakers,

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Curriculum Map

continuing the species


Living World

essential question


Why is reproduction a characteristic of all living things? How do living things reproduce?

Big Idea

All living things reproduce, but reproduction is achieved through different mechanisms. These different mechanisms can be characterized in terms of the amount of genetic diversity they produce.

Goals

Content Goals

  • Students will understand the biological importance and relevance of reproduction
  • Students will be able to distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction
  • Students will understand that reproduction is the basis of inheritance and how this involves genes and chromosomes
  • Students will become familiar with reproductive mechanisms in plants & animals
  • Students will be able to describe the structures and processes involved in human reproduction.
  • Students will understand the scientific basis of the methods of preventing pregnancy.
  • Students will understand some issues related to sexual health.

Process Goals

  • Students will be able compare and contrast reproductive mechanisms

Smarter Science skill(s) - Comparing, contrasting

PoL at a glance

  • Genes & Chromosomes
  • Asexual& sexual rep.
  • Rep mechanisms in plants/ animals
  • Rep. organs/gametes
  • Fertilization & Pregnancy
  • Stages of Human dev.
  • Contraception
  • Methods of preventing the implantation of the zygote in the uterus
  • Sexually transmitted and blood borne diseases

Reinvested topics

  • The cell, species
  • Habitat
  • Adaptation

TECH OBJECT

  • Pollinator
  • I.U.D.

Suggested approach/ Flow through the module

HOOK: video of bacteria reproduction e-coli time lapse and/or t4 bacteriophage infection

AfL probe; “How long could we as a species survive if all organisms on Earth ceased to reproduce?” “Do all living things reproduce?” “Are there any non-living things that reproduce?” “Do human clones exist?”

  • Explore the idea of transmitting characteristics and information through genes and chromosomes.
  • Introduce the idea of asexual vs. sexual reproduction, exploring benefits and costs.
  • Explore sexual and asexual reproductive mechanisms in plants with lab activity examining parts of a flower. Optional Gizmo on pollination.
  • Compare animal sexual/asexual reproductive mechanisms.
  • Consider using foldables or other graphic organizers to help students consolidate knowledge.
  • Look at human reproduction (organs, gametes, fertilization, pregnancy, stages of development)
  • Discuss the various ways of preventing pregnancy and the impact of this technology (birth control) on society.
  • Discuss STI’s,

Learning activities

  • Plant dissection
  • Gizmos: Pollination, Germination
  • NOVA video “Life’s Greatest Miracle”.
  • Video: The Great Sperm Race https://goo.gl/oo5vZ0
  • Presentation by Public Health Nurse on Contraception and STI’s
  • Demonstration of spread of STI’s using milk, starch and iodine
  • Students design a pamphlet on STIs or methods of preventing pregnancy

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Curriculum Map

adaptation & evolution


Living World

essential question


Why is there such a large diversity of species?

Big Idea

All living things shared a common ancestor but organisms diversified as a result of the processes of evolution.

Goals

Content Goals

  • Students will understand that genes and chromosomes are the physical substrate of inheritance
  • Students will realize that inherited characteristics between generations can change as a
  • result of natural selection (evolution)
  • Students will understand how selection pressure has resulted in adaptations to the
  • environment, both physical and behavioural

Process Goals

  • Students will be able to make inferences about an environment in which an organism lives based on its adaptations
  • Students will be able to make inferences about which adaptations would be beneficial to an organism in a certain environment

Smarter Science skill(s) - inferring, explaining

PoL at a glance

  • Physical and behavioral adaptation
  • Evolution
  • Genes and chromosomes

Reinvested topics

  • Taxonomy
  • Species

TECH OBJECT

  • Fog harvester (beetle)


Suggested approach/ Flow through the module

HOOK/AfL probe; present students with a remarkable case of adaptation (e.g. horny toad Moloch horridus) and ask students to explain how that feature or characteristic came to exist

  • Nova video on evolution: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kNPbjtej1Hk
  • Clarify students’ understanding of adaptation and explore examples of physical and behavioural adaptations, comparing organisms in different
  • environments
  • Introduce the idea of evolution, (species moving from simple to complex), reinvesting concept of species
  • This is a good opportunity to explore how models are developed in science, and tested through the collection of observations and data. (Darwinian vs. Lamarck)
  • Contextualize evolution as the driver that produces adaptation  Explore genetic mutation, genes and chromosomes and highlight how these are involved in the mechanism of evolution
  • Ensure that students have the opportunity to consolidate learning through a student-centred activity e.g.

Learning activities

  • N.B. there is high risk of this topic turning into ‘talk & chalk’/lecture based. It is advisable to use activities which promote student involvement  Idea of adaptations via Darwin’s Finches (beak adaptations/changes in food patterns result in Chromosomal changes))
  • Blue frog inquiry card
  • Use classic ‘peppered moth’ (biston betularia) example to show how the environment can drive evolution of a relatively short time  Adaptation:Students design an organism for a hypothetical environment with conditions specified by teacher (Alabama Science)
  • Evolution: Wow Lab lego activity
  • Chromosomes: Extract DNA from a kiwi or similar
  • Opportunies/applications to provoke sense of awe and wonder;
    • venoms and anti-venom adpatation in predator and prey (e.g. http://goo.gl/NpyAvX )
    • bizarre parasitic adaptations (e.g. parasites influencing host behaviour!)
  • Tech Integration
  • Introduce technical objects that have been inspired by nature, an opportunity to explore how engineers design objects for an identified need
  • “Companies seeking breakthrough products tend to ignore the greatest invention machine in the universe:
  • life’s more than three-billion-year history of evolution by natural selection.” (Amelia Hennighausen)
  • e.g. velcro, gecko hair gloves,