A note about labs, demos and related activities

Students tend to be more successful when they are made to predict the outcomes of labs, demos and related activities. Moreover, these can be made more engaging as well by doing so.

The PEOE strategy is worth applying when possible to empower students during these labs, demos and activities. Click here to see more about the PEOE strategy.

Lastly, below is a PDF of a recent Workshop in which the audience was made to follow the PEOE strategy during demos to experience its effects.

Powerful Demos - HS.pdf

Mass and Volume - lab

For the teacher:

Of the 6 objects, at least 2 must have the same mass with different volumes and 2 must have the same volume but different masses.

By asking the students to "rank the objects from biggest to smallest" the students will need to define what is meant by "big" and "small" at some point. This can be done before or after the class has had a chance to manipulate the objects and notice that some objects that look the same don't feel the same...

You may want to prepare some graphic organizers - including tables to be filled in - to help focus the students on the important information they should be gathering.

Although calculating density is not in the cycle 1 curriculum, you could have the students predict which object will float and which will sink before having them investigate what mass and volume may have to do with floating.

Have students use a Frayer Model to define terms such as mass and volume.

Use this PhET sim to have students reflect on mass, volume and density

Integrated Instructions - Mass, Volume, Density

The learning goals:

  • Students will practice massing objects

  • Students will practice calculating volumes (LxWxH) or finding them using the water displacement method

  • Students will define the concepts of mass and volume


  • Beam balance (or digital scale)

  • 6 similar objects

  • Overflow can

  • 25 mL graduated cylinder

  • 50 mL plastic graduated cylinder

  • Ruler

Possible procedures:

  • Find the mass of each object using the beam balance.

  • Find the volume of each object using one of the following techniques (decide which technique is best for each object and write the name of the object in the appropriate table):

      • Equation

            • Use the equation LxWxH to measure the volume

      • Water displacement

            • Using a graduated cylinder

                • Put enough water in the 100 mL graduated cylinder to cover the object. Record data.

                • Tilt the graduated cylinder and slowly insert the object. Raise the cylinder in an upright position.

                • Read the new volume. Record data.

                • Calculate volume by doing final volume – initial volume.

            • Using an overflow can and a graduated cylinder

                • Fill the overflow can until it overflows (put the spout above the sink). Let it drip until it stops.

                • Hold the 100 mL graduated cylinder under the spout.

                • Slowly insert the object in the overflow can. Wait until it stops dripping.

                • Read and record volume in graduated cylinder.

  • Calculate the density of each object: density=mass/volume

Temperature - demos

For the teacher:

Before addressing the topic of "states of matter" with students, these demos on the effects of heat on particles and pressure can help make otherwise abstract concepts more tangible.

In the future, students will be able to recall these demos and use them to explain the effects of heat on particles.

Before doing the "balloon in a freezer" demo, have your students predict what may happen to an inflated balloon if it is left in a freezer for more than an hour. Have them also try to explain their thinking.

Before doing the "wiggle pressure" demo, have students predict how many collisions one wiggle ball will have with the long side and with the short side. Have them also predict what will happen to the "floating" divider.

Help students relate the results of these demos to heat, temperature and average kinetic energy of particles as well as to collisions and pressure.

Materials - balloon in a freezer:

  • Balloons

  • Access to a freezer (or very cold fridge)

The learning goals:

  • Students will be able to describe the effects of heat on the agitation of particles

  • Students will be able to describe temperature as the average amount of energy in each particle

  • Students will understand the relationship between temperature and pressure in a gas

  • Students will be able to explain thermal expansion

Materials - "wiggle pressure":

  • Two pieces of 2 x 4 lumber, each 12 inches (30 cm) long

  • Two pieces of 2 x 4 lumber, each 27 inches (69 cm) long

  • One piece of 2 x 4 lumber, 11 15/16 inches (29.5 cm) long

  • 3/16 inch drill bit

  • Long clamp

  • Eight #8 pan-head wood screws 2 1/2 inches long and screwdriver to fit

  • Eight #8 washers

  • Three battery-powered, self-rolling toy balls, such as Weazel BallsTM (usually sold as cat toys; available online or in pet stores), with batteries inserted

  • Timer

States of Matter - Lab

For the teacher:

Have students use what they learned in the temperature demos to help explain what is happening in this lab. You can also pair this lab with the PhET sim on states of matter (click here).

When doing this lab, give students an empty graph with time on the x-axis and temperature on the y-axis and have them predict and sketch what they think the graph will look like. Then have them explain what they're thinking.

Help students by preparing a partially completed table for students to fill in the missing information - namely the temp at 30 second intervals.

Here are some questions to get your students thinking after the graphs are drawn:

  • Where was the water solid, liquid or gas?

  • why are there "plateaus" in the graph?

This lab can be challenging for students who haven't mastered reading and interpreting data in graphical form. You may need to practice reading data from a graph with you class before launching into this lab. The Gapminder website has some nice tools to practice just that.

Another challenging aspect of this lab is that collecting this data may feel like watching paint dry... If you have access to a raspberry Pi (or some Micro:Bits) and sensors, you may be able to reclaim the class by having the machine do the boring parts - you may even do the previous demos while waiting for the computers to collect and graph the data for you. Click here to see how you might set up this lab to do itself.

The learning goals:

  • Students will recognize the and name the phase changes of matter

  • Students will interpret the phase change diagram for water


  • Crushed ice

  • Hot plate

  • 250 mL beaker

  • Thermometer

  • Retort Stand and clamp

  • Stopwatch

Possible procedure:

  • Place some crushed ice in a beaker

  • Place the thermometer in the clamp and lower the thermometer into the crushed ice. Wait for the temperature to stabilize (approximately 5 min)

  • In a table, write down the temperature of the ice at time 0:00

  • Turn on the hotplate to high and start to heat the beaker of ice. Start the stopwatch

  • Every 30 seconds, record the temperature of the ice in the table. DO NOT STOP the stopwatch

  • As the ice changes states, record your observations.

  • Keep recording the temperature until there have been three temperature readings that are the same when the water is in a gaseous state.

  • Turn off the hotplate and allow the beaker to cool.

Acids and Bases - Lab

For the teacher:

Have students predict which common substances they think are acids and which they think are bases.

Have students discover that mixing acids and bases together can cause the solution to become neutral. Then, have them neutralize a "chemical spill" by testing its pH and mixing it with its appropriate counterpart.

If you have students smelling or tasting, remind them that they should not put unknown chemicals in their bodies as they can be very harmful.

A good PhET sim to go along with his lab is this one linked here. I recommend using it after the lab to solidify or further practice these concepts.

The learning goals:

  • Students will observe the properties of acids, bases and neutral solutions

  • Students will practice determining the pH of common substances using litmus or pH paper


  • Lemon juice

  • Ammonia

  • Soft drink

  • Baking soda solution

  • Drain cleaner

  • Vinegar

  • Distilled water

  • Blue litmus paper

  • Red litmus paper

  • pH paper

  • Spot plate

  • Red cabbage juice

Possible procedure:

  1. Put 4-5 drops of each solution in the spot plate.

  2. Place the tip of the blue litmus paper in each solution. Record results.

  3. Place the tip of the red litmus paper in each solution. Record results.

  4. Place the tip of the pH paper in each solution. Record results.

  5. Add 4-5 drops of red cabbage juice to each substance. Record results.

Integrated Instructions - Acidity Alkalinity Lab

Separation Techniques - Lab

For the teacher:

This lab reinvests the concept of states of matter as well as homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.

Have students sketch and explain the steps to separate the salt from the salt rock in the correct order.

Consider using the image below to contextualize this lab (click here for more).

This context can also allow you to have a conversation about error and using multiple data points. For example, you can prepare beakers of salt water for each team with different amounts of salt and water in each. Then, have the students separate the salt from the water and mass the amount. Some students will have more than the amount "claimed" by Montreal and other will have less. Have the students discuss why the samples may vary and how to check the claim the city is making. (Salt may not be properly dispersed by the city. If it were evenly spread out, the city's claim may be correct. Averaging out all the samples may be a good way to address the differences from each sample and check the validity of the claim).

The learning goals:

  • Students will associate separation techniques with types of mixtures

  • Students will separate mixtures requiring multiple steps


  • 10 g of Rock Salt

  • Distilled water

  • Funnel

  • Ring support

  • Filter Paper

  • Spatula

  • 2 Plastic Beakers

  • Hot plate

  • Evaporating Dish

  • Crucible tongs

Possible procedure:

  1. Measure 50 ml of water and add it to the beaker with the rock salt. Stir the solution with the spatula for 3 to 5 minutes.

  2. Set up the filtration apparatus. Insert the funnel into the funnel support connected to the retort stand. Fold the filter paper and place it into the funnel. Place a beaker under the funnel. Slowly pour the rock salt solution into the funnel. Collect the filtrate.

  3. Pour some of the collected filtrate into the evaporating dish. Place the evaporating dish onto the hotplate and turn the heat on high (or 10). Continue to heat until all of the water has evaporated. Turn off the hot plate. Remove the evaporating dish with the crucible tongs and place onto the bench. Do not touch the evaporating dish with fingers as it is extremely hot

**Be careful as there may be popping from the evaporating dish**

  1. Make observations about the residue in the evaporating dish.

Separation Technique

Separation Techniques - Demo

For the teacher:

There is potential here for a good lab exam. See the video below for such and idea.

Separation Technique

The learning goals:

  • Students will observe a combination of separation techniques used to separate a mixture including evaporating liquids with different boiling points


  • Soda pop

  • 100 ml graduated cylinder

  • 2x 250ml flasks

  • Rubber stopper #5

  • Hot Plate

  • Stirring rod

  • Alum

  • 2 filter papers

  • Funnel

  • Funnel support

  • 2 universal clamps

  • Universal stand

  • Activated coal

  • pH paper

  • Conductivity meter

  • Straw

  • Digital scale

  • 2x weigh boats

  • 2 Rubber stoppers with one hole

  • 90˚ glass elbow

  • Condenser

  • Rubber tubing

  • Beaker

Possible procedures:

  1. Measure 100ml of soda pop using the graduated cylinder;

  1. Pour the soda pop into a flask;

  1. Test the solution for the following and write your answers in Table 1;

  • Clarity: is the solution opaque, translucent or transparent? What is the color?

  • Excess gas: is there effervescence when solution is stirred?

  • Acidity: what is the pH of the solution?

  • Presence of mineral salts: does the solution conduct electricity?

  • Presence of organic material: is foam forming when you blow in the solution?

  1. Technique A: Elimination of gas

  • Put the flask containing the solution on the hotplate;

  • Turn the hotplate on the 4;

  • Heat the solution for about 5 minutes while stirring with the stirring rod (until all bubbles are gone);

  • Allow the solution to cool for 5 minutes.

  1. Technique B: Precipitation

  • Add 5g of alum to the solution in the flask;

  • Quickly put the rubber stopper on the flask and swirl the flask slowly. Keep your hand on the stopper;

  • Carefully expel the gas by slowly lifting the rubber stopper from the flask;

  • Let the solution sit for 3 minutes;

  • Hold the flask up to the light and observe if there is any sediment on the bottom.

  1. Technique C: Physical filtration

  • Set up the filter support on the universal support and place the funnel into the support;

  • Fold a filter paper in two, and then in two again (to make a cone);

  • Place the filter paper inside the funnel;

  • Place the empty flask under the funnel;

  • Filter the solution;

  • When the filtration is complete, rinse the empty flask.

  1. Technique D: Chemical filtration

  • Throw the filter paper in the garbage and rinse the funnel;

  • Fold a new filter paper and place it in the funnel;

  • Put 5g of activated coal into the flask with the solution and swirl to mix;

  • Place the empty flask under the funnel;

  • Filter the solution and rinse the flask;

  • Place it under the funnel;

  1. Test the solution for its characteristics and record answers in Table

  1. Technique E: Distillation

  • Place the flask on the hot plate and connect it to the condenser using the stopper with the glass elbow;

  • Make any necessary adjustment to the setup;

  • Turn the cold water on

  • Turn the hot plate on to maximum;

  • Wait for distillation to be complete.

NEVER distill the distillation flask to dryness as there is a risk of explosion and fire.

Ink Chromatography - Lab

For the teacher:

This is another separation technique. This one happens to fit in well with the sample lesson plan in the second unit of the Sec 1 Curriculum map on changes in matter (click here to see).

Can this lab be connected to gel electrophoresis and DNA matching technology? Students can be asked wich 2 inks are the "parents" of a third ink by looking for ingredients separated from their mixtures. Have students predict which colours are the "parents" for a third colour made from their mixing.

Have students reflect on how the size of a molecule may play a role as well as the role of Gravity.

Have students think about how chromatography may be useful for identifying other substances besides markers.

The learning goals:

  • Students will be able to associate a separation technique with a type of mixture

  • Students will be able to describe the steps involved to separate a complex mixture


  • 4 black markers

  • 4 chromatography vials

  • 4 chromatography strips

  • Ruler

  • 10 mL graduated cylinder

  • Distilled water

  • Unknown marker dot on chromatography paper strip

Possible procedures:

  1. Write the marker name in pencil at the top of the paper strip.

  1. Using the marker draw a thick line near the bottom of the chromatography paper - about 2 cm from the bottom.

  1. Pour 2 mL of water into the vial and then place the paper strip in the vial. Make sure the ink line does not touch the water – only the bottom of the chromatography paper.

  1. Allow the water to move up the paper for 15 minutes and then remove the strip from the water. Hang it on the side of the table to dry.

Taxonomy - Activity

For the teacher:

A large part of science includes labeling and categorizing things. Even though sometimes things don't fit categories perfectly, this is important for organizing our knowledge and communicating it.

Consider giving students a tricky animal to classify, such as the platypus. Have them predict in which category it belongs.

Can you have your students make their own dichotomous key to classify household items? Can they make their own key to classify trees in the school's yard?

The learning goals:

  • Students will define taxonomy as a system for classifying living organisms based for the most part on their anatomical structure and genetic characteristics

  • Students will use a taxonomic key to identify a species


  • Black marble

  • Unsharpened pencil

  • White chalk

  • Wooden splint

  • Sharpened pencil

  • Blue marble

  • Small paperclip

  • Eraser

  • Die

  • Large paperclip

  • Ruler

  • Dichotomous key

Possible procedure:

Take one object at a time and using the dichotomous key, identify the silly scientific name for each.

A sample of the Dichotomous key is shared below. See Andy's lab book for the full document (pg 27.)

Natural Selection - Activity

For the teacher:

In this activity, students will play a game where they pretend to be a population of crabs with different claw shapes and sizes. They need to collect as much food as possible with these claws.

This activity does a good job of showing how some adaptations are better suited for certain tasks but doesn't explain how better adapted genes are transmitted into the future. This can be a conversation before or after the activity.

Another way of demonstrating natural selection is with this PhET simulation (click here).

The learning goals:

  • Students will describe the adaptation that enable animals to improve their chances of survival

  • Students will be able to explain the natural selection process


  • Utensils: fork, spoon, knife, chopsticks, tongs

  • Jelly beans

  • Nibs

  • Gummy worms

  • Q-tips©

  • Paper clips

  • 4 Plates

  • 4 Cups

Possible procedure:

See Andy's booklet for full instructions and game rules (pg. 29).

  1. To start, each team member selects one of four (4) different utensils.

  1. There is a 3-minute practice period.

  1. There will be 5 rounds and each round will be 30 seconds.

  1. Goal of each round is to collect as much food in your cup as possible using your utensil within the 30-second time limit.

Microslide Viewer; Plant and Animal Cells - Activity

For the teacher:

If possible have prepared 2 stations that students can visit. Each station will have animal and plant cells in the view respectively. Have students start by making a prediction about which cells they think belong to an animal and which they think belongs to a plant and explain why.

After they've made their predictions and attempted to explain what they think, have them "collect" samples of plant and animal cells. Students can then sketch and explain what they see in the microscopes - looking for similarities and differences.

Finally, have students revisit their original predictions and decide if they were correct followed by an explanation of why.

The learning goals:

  • Define the cell as a structural unit of life

  • Names the vital functions carried out by cells

  • distinguishes between animal and plant cells (find similarities and differences)

  • understands how the size and shape of a call is related to its function

  • Describes the role of the main cellular components visible under the microscope

  • Students will use instruments appropriately


  • Microslide viewer

  • Microslide 102 (Cells of Plants and Animals)

  • Text folder

Possible procedure:

  1. Read the text folder introduction;

  1. Put slide 1 (Cheek-Lining Cells) on the Microslide viewer;

  1. Read the description on Slide 1 in the text folder and follow along to study this slide;

  1. Answer the questions for that slide in this booklet;

  1. Draw what you see in the space provided;

  1. Repeat steps 2 to 5 for slides 2 to 8.

Microscope; Plant and Animal Cells - Activity

The learning goals:

  • Define the cell as a structural unit of life.

  • Name vital functions carried out by cells.

  • Distinguish between animal and plant cells (similarities and differences).

  • Understand how the size and shape of a cell are related to its function.

  • Identify the main cellular components visible under a microscope (cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, cell wall).

  • Describe the role of the main cellular components visible under the microscope.

  • Use observational instruments appropriately.


    • Letter “e” slide

    • Onion cell slide

    • Cheek cell slide

    • Microscope

Evaporation Rate - Lab

For the teacher:

Have students predict which sponge will have the biggest change in mass and have them explain what physical processes may be responsible for this.

After collecting the data students should then check their predictions against reality.

Have students reflect on what are the biggest influences on evaporation rates.

Finally, have students point to real-life examples of this phenomenon.

The learning goals:

  • Students will describe the main interactions between the hydrosphere and the atmosphere (heat exchanges, climate regulation and meteorological phenomena)


  • 4 sponges

  • 25 mL graduated cylinder

  • Petri dish

  • Digital balance

  • Fan

  • Lamp

  • Stopwatch

  • Glass Jar

  • Water in beaker

Possible procedures:

  1. Place the first sponge in the Petri dish and pour 10 ml of water on the sponge;

  1. Measure the mass of the water-soaked sponge and write it down in Table 1;

  1. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for each sponge;

  1. Place the pink sponge on a counter shielded from wind and the light of the lamp. This is the control sponge;

  1. Place the yellow sponge on a counter, 7 cm below the lamp. This is the temperature sponge;

  1. Place the blue sponge on a counter under the glass jar. This is the relative humidity sponge;

  1. Place the green sponge on a counter, 20 cm away from a running fan. This is the wind sponge;

  1. After 25 minutes, measure the mass of each sponge once again and write your results in Table 1.

Convection Currents - Demos

For the teacher:

It can be difficult for students to relate this demo to both the movement of magma and air as these two fluids do not resemble each other. Help students understand that both of these are fluids and therefore are capable of convection currents.

Have students predict the movement of the blue and red food colourings.

The learning goals:

  • Describe the main elements of the theory of tectonic plates (e.g. plates, subduction zone, mid-ocean ridge)

  • Names the main factors responsible for wind (e.g. convection movements, movement of air masses)

Day and Night Cycles - Activity

For the teacher:

You can use a spinning office chair and phone camera to record the apparent motion of the room as you film in the rotating chair.

Have students predict what they will see in the recording.

Atoms, Molecules, Pure Substances and Mixtures - Demo and Activity

For the teacher:

The purpose of the demonstration is to give students a sense of what matter is made of and how these "building blocks" connect to form new substances. This is done using Bolts washers and nuts, but can also be done using LEGO blocks. The analogy is good to make atoms more tangible but fails to take into account the atomic or molecular motion and also not all atoms can "connect" to any other. Have students try to explain how this analogy is good but also where it fails.

If you use LEGOS, colour coding them will make seeing the differences between atoms, molecules, pure substances and mixtures easier. You could potentially (without immediately telling the students) build colourful models of substances students know (like water). This makes differentiating between atoms, molecules, pure substances and mixtures more concrete. Perhaps, students can be asked to predict what the contents of the plastic tray (the collection) will look like before assembling and collecting the parts.

A good visualization of the periodic table, the atoms within and the subatomic particles that, in turn, make them can be found on PhET:

The learning goals:

  • Student will define an element as a pure substance made from a single type of atom

  • Describe molecules using Dalton's atomic model

  • Represent the formation of a molecule using Dalton's atomic model

  • Describe the properties of a mixture


    • 20 nuts

    • 10 bolts

    • 20 washers

    • Plastic tray

Possible procedures:

Part A – Demonstration

    1. Look at a nut, a bolt, and a washer. Each of these represents a different element.

    2. Screw a nut onto a bolt. Place in spot A. Record your observations in Table 1.

    3. Screw a washer and a nut onto another bolt. Place in spot B. Record your observations in Table 1.

    4. In spot C, place four (4) bolts. Record your observations in Table 1.

    5. In spot D, place two (2) nuts and two (2) bolts. Record your observations in Table 1.

Part B – Student Inquiry Activity

  1. Assemble the following models and place them in according spots (N = Nuts ; B = Bolts ; W = Washers):

      • 2 W

      • 2 BN2 and BW4N3

      • 2 BWN

      • BN2 and BWN

      • 5 W and 2 N

      • 2 N and BN

      • 4 W and BN2 and BW2N

  1. Record your observations in Table 2. Note that all pieces should be used.

Part C – Student Discovery Activity

  1. Assemble your own models that will satisfy the conditions in Table 3.

  2. Complete Table 3 by writing the chemical formulas of the models you created. Note that not all pieces will be used.

For tables, see Andy's booklet

Physical and Chemical changes - Demos and Activity

For the teacher:

Because the difference between physical and chemical changes can occur at a microscopic level (new compounds are produced or not) and are often hard to see, I recommend doing some direct instruction first to make sure students know what to look for during the demos and labs. You may need to pick and choose carefully which demos and labs you do so as to not overwhelm your students with too much abstract information all at once.

Start by having students tell you what they know about chemical and physical changes so that you can build on their prior knowledge (student who know something will stay engaged if they can share and misconceptions worth addressing may show up).

While this activity has students recording observations of many changes, to avoid cognitively overloading students, I would select a few key examples - some chemical and some physical changes - and ask students to predict what they think will happen before and after the mixture is made.

For example you can pair the following:

  • "elephant toothpaste" (hydrogen peroxide, yeast and soap) makes for a flashy but also good example of a chemical change because of the many indicators of chemical changes (temp, gas, etc.).

  • Melting and ice cube or boiling water on hot plate (both are examples of physical changes but the boiling water can be more interesting since a gas is formed).

  • Be aware that The Mentos and Coke demo is often confused as a chemical change because of the dissolved gas that comes out.

The learning goals:

  • Describe the characteristics of physical and chemical change

  • Recognize physical changes

  • Describe the indicators of a chemical change

  • Explain a chemical change as the changes in properties of the substances involved

  • Name different types of chemical changes


    • Matches

    • Mortar & pestle

    • Chalk

    • Ice cube

    • Vinegar(Test Tube A)

    • 0.1M Calcium chloride solution(Test Tube B)

    • 0.1M Sodium carbonate solution (Test Tube C)

    • Sodium hydroxide and luminol solution

    • Bleach

    • 3 g yeast

    • Hydrogen peroxide 3% with food colouring and liquid soap

    • 2 Aluminium pan

    • Methanol

    • Lithium chloride in aluminium dish

    • 100 mL graduated cylinder

    • 3 test tubes + test tube rack

    • 50 ml beaker

    • Stirring rod

Possible procedures:

  1. Observe the ice cube. Record the BEFORE results in table 1.

  1. Mix the calcium chloride (CaCl2 – test tube B) with the sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 – test tube C). Record the BEFORE results in table 1. Set the test tube aside until step 13.

  1. Light a match and observe what happens. Record the results in table 1. (DEMONSTRATION)

  1. Break the piece of chalk in half. Record the results in table 1.

  1. Place one broken piece of chalk in the mortar and crush it to powder using the pestle. Record the results in table 1.

  1. Put the other broken piece of chalk in vinegar (test tube A). Record the results in table 1.

  1. Mix the sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and luminol solution with the bleach. Record the results in table 1. (DEMONSTRATION)

  1. Put the graduated cylinder containing the soap and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the plastic container.

  1. Add 25 ml of warm water to the yeast. Stir to mix.

  1. Pour the warm water and yeast mixture into the graduated cylinder containing the soap and hydrogen peroxide mixture. Record the results in table 1.

  1. Add methanol to the dish containing lithium chloride (LiCl). Set on fire. Record the results in table 1. (DEMONSTRATION)

  1. Observe the ice cube again. Record the AFTER results in table 1.

  1. Observe the test tube from step 2 again, without shaking it. Record the AFTER results in table 1.

See Andy's booklets for tables

Changes in Matter - Lab

For the teacher:

The learning goals:

  • Define a characteristic property as a property that aids in the identification of a substance or group of substances

  • Identify groups of substances based on their common characteristic properties


Possible procedures:

Original labs courtesy of Andrée-Anne Côté (for sec 1 & 2)